Artificial insemination is the first alternative suggested in assisted reproduction treatment. This technique is used in couples who have not managed to conceive because of problems with the woman’s cervix or alterations in the man’s semen. The purpose of artificial insemination is to help the sperm reach the egg in order to increase the chances of fertilisation.
The semen sample is yielded from masturbation the same day that the insemination is to take place. The couple is recommended to abstain from sex 3-5 days prior to the insemination.
Through a series of laboratory procedures, the fertility potential of the sperm is enhanced using a technique known as sperm capacitation. Once the most fertile sperm population has been chosen, an approximate volume of 0.5 ml of capacitated sperm is injected into the uterus.
Along with artificial insemination with the partner’s semen, there is also artificial insemination with a donor’s semen in the case of single women, female couples or at times when using the partner’s semen in not recommended.